Nov, O., Naaman, M., & Ye, C. (2008). What drives content tagging: the case of photos on Flickr. CHI '08, (pp. 1097-1100). doi: 10.1145/1357054.1357225
Article can be found here: http://nguyendangbinh.org/Proceedings/CHI/2008/docs/p1097.pdf
tagging, tags, Flickr, motivation, photo sharing, social presence
This article is about (main discussion):
This article summarizes a quantitative study that was done on the motivations for users on Flickr use tags on their photos. The article built on previous qualitative studies. The study looked for and found positive correlation in the following areas:
- the more motivated the users are to organize and communicate photo content for themselves (Self), then the more unique tags they use
- the more motivated the users are to organize and communicate photo content for Public, then the more unique tags they use
- the more groups that the users are members of on Flickr, then the more unique tags they use
- the more contacts that the users have on Flickr, then the more unique tags they use
The author argues that:
- The level of users’ Self motivation will be positively correlated with their number of tags.
- The level of users’ Public motivation will be positively correlated with their number of tags.
- The number of contacts a user has will be positively correlated with the user’s number of tags.
- The number of groups in which a user is a member will be positively correlated with the user’s number of tags. (p. 1098)
The authors make the following statements or cites the following references on support of his/her argument:
"We found that the levels of the Self and Public motivations, as well as the social presence indicators and the number of photos, were positively correlated with tagging level. In other words, Hypotheses 1, 2, 4 and 5 were supported. For example, The Public motivation is significantly correlated with the tagging level, and explains 2.25% (.1502) of the variance in it." (p. 1099)
This positive correlation is best summarized in the following diagram from p. 1099:
The diagram shows a positive correlation between all factors except Family & Friends as the stated motivation for tagging photos.
In order to support the lack of positive correlation between the Stated Motivation of Family and Friends and the number of unique tags, the authors referenced interviews conducted by Ames and Naaman (Ames & Naaman, 2007). "The authors [Ames and Naaman] suggest that for the Family & Friends target of tagging, the Organization function was a relatively weak motivation; the stronger motivation stems from the Communication function (in other words, users added tags to describe images to family and friends, not to help them find images). The Communication function on Flickr is served by other means that pose an alternative to tagging (e.g., titles, captions, and sets). In addition, users may communicate about the photos to their friends via other, external means (e.g., email)." (pp. 1099-1100)
The authors conclude that:
- "Enhancing users’ tagging (by encouraging the factors that give rise to it) may contribute to the success of such communities." (p. 1100)
- The authors suggest that "it is advised that managers of collaborative content systems seeking to increase tagging activity [should] focus their communication and marketing efforts on those factors that have a strong impact on tagging level." (p. 1100)
- Current content-sharing systems and newly developed ones should be "design[ed] ....in ways that maximize the opportunities for social presence, and expose the effects of joining groups and adding contacts." (p. 1100)
The authors feel that:
Given the growing use of tags, the designers of content-sharing systems need to understand what motivates users to tag and which motivations will increase tagging. The sustainability of these content-sharing systems will depend on that. (p. 1100)
Ways to apply this to our work:
- This article did not end up providing as much information as I would have liked about tagging. I will need to do further research on effective tagging
- If we put the Baker Slides on a system with groups and contacts, then we should take time to find as many appropriate groups and contacts as possible for the SHFS to be associated with. This may help to drive external users to the content. It may also assist with using common or appropriate tags
- It helped to give insight into the motivations for tagging, which we can use to help us choose tags